Introduction to NUML Anti-Plagiarism Unit (APU)
NUML Anti-Plagiarism Unit (APU) is established to address all plagiarism-related issues in academics at NUML. It strives for implementation of Higher Education Commission’s (HEC) vision and efforts for ensuring standards and quality in research work, across all universities in Pakistan. Established around this goal, NUML APU aims at educating, training and facilitating Faculty members and students/researchers about measures to combat the menace of plagiarism. Moreover it provides support about using Turnitin, an HEC-recommended online service for plagiarism checking. NUML APU has devised an indigenous Plagiarism Policy for NUML, to ensure smooth functioning and clearer standard operating procedures for plagiarism-related instances.
NUML PLAGIARISM POLICY
National University of Modern Languages (NUML) is committed to establishing and sustaining a transparent, as well as creative, academic environment, for quality, meaningful and original output to the academia. NUML shares its vision of academic integrity and authenticity with the Higher Education Commission (HEC), which has formulated policy guidelines on Plagiarism. This policy broadly documents possible steps to combat plagiarism in academia, thus reinforcing and promoting the culture of academic integrity and originality. These steps are taken to ensure compliance of research work and publications produced in Pakistan, with international standards and quality. The HEC reinforces and provides the use of Turnitin, for checking plagiarism. The HEC allows candidates to improve their work, in case Turnitin Originality Report shows Similarity Index of more than 19%, where below 19% is permissible.
In order to address the issues, as observed in application of HEC’s policy and use of Turnitin at NUML, the following policy is a comprehensive set of rules to be implemented by all programs and publications of NUML. These are devised in order to address the issues raised by instructors and students/researchers alike. The effort is targeted at a more effective and carefully managed system of implementing use of Turnitin for ensuring transparency and authenticity.

Scope

This policy applies to all written works, produced for credit/publication, at and for NUML, at all Graduate and Postgraduate levels, in all the programs.

1.1. M.S/M.Phil/Ph.D

 a) All theses are to be sent to Faculty of Quality Enhancement, Research &Publications (F QER&P) for Turnitin Originality Report through office of Faculty of Advanced Integrated Studies and Research (F AIS&R). There is a provision of only THREE ATTEMPTS (First Submission + Two Attempts) for bringing the work within HEC’s prescribed limit of below 19% of similarity index. Failing to do so will result in the case being forwarded to the Plagiarism Standing Committee( PSC)(See 3)

 b) A thesis submitted to F AIS&R should include a hard copy (spiral-bound) and a soft copy (via email, to be forwarded by F AIS&R to F QE, R&P).

c) All course assignments, project reports, term papers, etc. will be run through Turnitin by instructors ONLY. There is a provision of only TWO ATTEMPTS (First Submission + One Attempt) for bringing the work within HEC’s prescribed limit of below 19% of similarity index. Failing to do so will result in Minor, Moderate or Major Penalty.(See 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3)

 d) The Turnitin Originality reports of all course assignments, project reports, term papers, etc. should be appended by instructor, with the course result/evaluation, submitted to Faculty of AIS&R / Examination section. Results of students will be withheld whose Turnitin Originality reports are not attached with the course assessment sheet/award list.

 e) In cases of re-defense of theses, it will be processed through Turnitin again at the time of resubmission. The revised copy will be sent to Faculty of QE,R&P through the office of Faculty of AIS&R for Turnitin Originality report.

1.2. Masters and Bachelors Programs

a) All theses and Final Seminar papers are to be run through Turnitin by Faculty of Quality Enhancement, Research & Publication (F QE,R&P). The focal person of each department will work as a liaison between student and F QE,R&P. A student has to submit a hard copy and soft copy to the Focal Person, to be passed on to F QE,R&P. There is a provision of only THREE ATTEMPTS (First Submission + Two Attempts) for bringing the work within HEC’s prescribed limit of below 19% of similarity index. Failing to do so will result in the case being forwarded to the Plagiarism Standing Committee( PSC)

 b) All course assignments, project reports, term papers, etc. should be run through Turnitin by relevant instructors ONLY. There is a provision of only TWO ATTEMPTS (First Submission + One Attempt) for bringing the work within HEC’s prescribed limit of below 19% of similarity index. Failing to do so will result in Failing to do so will result in Minor, Moderate or Major Penalty.(See 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3)

 c) The Turnitin Originality reports of all course assignments, project reports, term papers, etc. should be appended with the result/evaluation submitted to Department/Examination section. Results of students will be withheld whose Turnitin Originality reports are not attached with the course assessment sheet/award list.

2. Penalties

The penalties for plagiarism cases will be applicable after a student/researcher has availed NUML’s prescribed number of attempts, for improving his/her work. The penalties for such cases fall into the following three categories.

 2.1. Minor Penalties (applicable to all course assignments, project reports, term papers, etc.)

 A minor penalty will be applied if a student’s work is found to be copied (up to 50%), even after he/she has availed the TWO ATTEMPTS for improving it. This will result in an award of Zero Marks in the work (course assignments, project reports, term papers, etc.). The course instructor has to inform HoD/Dean and Examination Branch (in writing) about such cases, with evidences appended. The instructor must make a red entry in award list and counsel the student as well.

 2.2. Moderate Penalties (applicable to all works other than Thesis)

A moderate penalty will be applied if a student’s work is found to be copied (more than 50%), even after he/she has availed the TWO ATTEMPTS (First Submission + One Attempt) for improving it. This presupposes that the student would have received a minor penalty, of an award of zero marks, already. Moreover, a warning letter will be issued to the student, with a copy sent to parents/guardian.

*Note: No other penalty will be applicable in Plagiarism cases, except the ones mentioned above.

2.3. Major Penalty (applicable to Thesis at all levels)

A major penalty is for plagiarism cases, concerning Thesis at all levels. This penalty is applicable when a student/researcher has availed THREE ATTEMPTS (First Submission + Two Attempts) for improving his/her work and failed to do so, according to HEC’s prescribed standards. This entails the case to be put forward to Plagiarism Standing Committee (PSC) for further disciplinary action.

3.Plagiarism Standing Committee (PSC)

A plagiarism standing committee at NUML will be approached in cases where a student/researcher fails to comply with HEC’s directives about an acceptable similarity index, of below 19%, in Thesis writing only, at all levels.
There are two possible shapes of this committee:
3.1. M.S, M.Phil, Ph.D Programmes (Thesis)
In case of M.S, M.Phil, Ph.D Thesis, the PSC will constitute
a. Dean QER&P (Chairperson)
b. Dean AIS&R (Member)
c. Dean/HoD(Concerned Department) (Member)
d. One Senior Faculty Member (Thesis Evaluator) (Member)
e. Director Examination (Member)
3.2. Masters and Bachelors Programmes (Thesis)

In case of Thesis at Graduate level the PSC will constitute
a. Dean QER&P (Chairperson)
b. Dean/HoD (Concerned Department)
c. Course Instructor
The PSC will be approached when a researcher fails to improve his/her work, after having attempting it THRICE.

4. NUML Research Publications/Journals

a) All submissions (research paper/reviews) to NUML research publication/Journals will be duly processed through Turnitin by Faculty of QER&P.

b) Using one’s personal Turnitin Account for processing personal work, intended for submission to NUML, is not encouraged.

c) Using any other Turnitin Account (in Pakistan or Abroad) for processing personal work, intended for submission to NUML, is not acceptable.

 d) In any such instance where anyone processes her/his work before submission to NUML, access to the Turnitin account (login & password), used for processing should be provided to Faculty of QE,R&P or the submission will be outrightly rejected.

5. Conference Papers

a) If a researcher (Faculty Member/Student) plans to contribute a paper in any conference (national/ international) and requires NOC, her/his paper will be processed through Turnitin by Faculty of QER&P before her/his case is processed further.
b) Using one’s personal Turnitin Account for processing personal work, is not encouraged.
c) Using any other Turnitin Account (in Pakistan or Abroad) for processing personal work, is not acceptable.
d) In any such instance where anyone processes her/his work before submission to NUML, access to the Turnitin account (login & password), used for processing should be provided to Faculty of QE,R&P or the submission will be outrightly rejected.

6. General Guidelines

6.1. For Students/ Researchers
a) Using one’s personal Turnitin Account for processing personal work, intended for submission to NUML, is not encouraged.
b) Using any other Turnitin Account (in Pakistan or Abroad) for processing personal work, intended for submission to NUML, is not acceptable.
c) In any such instance where anyone processes her/his work before submission to NUML, access to the Turnitin account (login & password), used for processing should be provided to Faculty of QE,R&P or the submission will be outrightly rejected.
d) In case of a higher Similarity Index (more than 19%), the researcher should work towards improving his/her work, in consultation with Subject instructor/ Supervisor.
e) All Thesis/Paper submitted to Faculty of QE,R&P must
i. Be in a single MS Word (doc) file (a work separated in multiple files will not be accepted)
ii. Use a citation style (MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.) consistently
iii. Not have Footnotes in the soft copy submitted for Turnitin Originality Report (as these usually render higher percentage in Turnitin Similarity index) (this can be excluded just from the soft copy, not from the accompanying Hard copy)
6.2. For Instructors/Focal Persons
a) The following acts can lead to termination of Turnitin account and disciplinary action
i. Manipulating/Tempering Turnitin reports
ii. Sharing account details with others
b) Separate chapters (of Thesis) / Segments (of course assignments, project reports, term papers, etc.) should not be run through Turnitin, as it may hamper the final percentage, once the work is complete.
At NUML we would like to consolidate a healthy culture of academic authenticity into education. These guidelines are a road map towards that goal. These are established to bring more clarity, about HEC Plagiarism policy, to instructors and students/researchers. It also addresses many indigenous plagiarism-related issues at NUML. The implementation of this policy will facilitate the training of individuals into a tradition of effective and standard writing.

Trainings & Workshops

In order to facilitate and guide Faculty members, Supervisors, Students and researchers about the measures to avoid as well as counter Plagiarism, NUML Anti-Plagiarism Unit (APU) has conducted many workshops and training sessions. These have been carried out at , both, departmental and university level. Following are details of some of the major training sessions.

  • 1. A Training Session on Turnitin (Dated 28th April 2011) arranged for the International Relations Department
  • 2. A 4-Day Turnitin Workshop(Dated 1-4 February 2011) for NUML’s departmental focal persons that aimed at preparing these departmental representatives, for further effective dissemination of knowledge to their respective colleagues
  • 3. A Training session on Use of Turnitin ( Dated August 2010) for Ph.D Supervisors, to facilitate them with the use of their Turnitin accounts and addressing the issues in an interactive session that followed Training Session on Anti-Plagiarism and Turnitin Usage for new students of M Phil, MS and PhD Students on September 05, 2011
Plagiarism FAQs
What is plagiarism?
Plagiarism occurs when an author attempts to misrepresent as original, existing and unacknowledged material or ideas from another person, source or (in the case of self-plagiarism) their own previous work. 
Why is plagiarism a problem now?
Plagiarism is not a new problem. It used to be a local problem, but the increase in use of the internet means that billions of documents are now freely available and the process of copying is much easier. Students may confuse freely available with ‘free to use’ and fail to acknowledge their sources.
Why do students do it?
Following are few of the most prominent reasons:
  • Lack of understanding
  • Desire for a better mark
  • Bad time management
  • Different values
  • Challenging the system
  • Lack of respect for lecturers
  • Denial
  • Temptation and low perceived risk
Is the Internet responsible for the rise of plagiarism?
  • IT literate students are familiar with a cut and paste download culture
  • The Internet has made certain types of information easier to assimilate and certain types of assessment more prone to cut & paste plagiarism
  • The internet has allowed ‘entrepreneurs’ to establish custom essay businesses
  • Many of these sites specially target secondary education and even particular awarding bodies. 
Are Internet sources a bad thing?
  • We can’t ignore the Internet as a source of information. We have never had such ubiquitous access to poor or non-authoritative information but neither have we had such ubiquitous access to good information and e-resources.
  • Proper use of Internet content is the real concern.
  • The openness of the Internet means that the content is more diverse than traditional sources. Different perspectives can be examined and important minority views discovered. It is therefore essential for learners to have an enquiring mind, to be able to assimilate diverse information, to build a case for the authority of a source and to question all information which is placed in front of them. You might say that these are the very skills that would typify a good quality education.
Is the Internet destroying traditional assessment?
  • 1. Well designed assessment is unlikely to be undermined by the Internet, however it is possible that certain types of assessment, that at one time would have required a student to demonstrate manual research skills, may now have been made easier by online searches and e-journal resources.
  • 2. Personalized or discerning assignments which draw on the skills needed to extract and understand information from the Internet and electronic resources can make the assessment both more relevant and rewarding for the learner. In this way assessment redesign can be an essential part of dealing with plagiarism on any given course.
  • 3. Well taught courses with well designed assessments are less prone to plagiarism by fostering a desire to learn through the assignment process.
  • 4. The Internet is starting to provide a more interesting means of assessment, using tools which students are familiar with using in their personal lives, such as blogs and social networking sites.
What is electronic detection?
Electronic detection systems (e.g. Turnitin) analyze student written work by comparing the submitted text with the Internet and/or databases of stored materials and producing a report highlighting content that is not original.
Why is electronic detection important?
  • It enables institutions to demonstrate that they take the issue seriously and that they are checking student scripts for cut & paste plagiarism
  • Electronic detection operates as a driver for students to engage in good practice
Why Turnitin?
  • 1. Turnitin is first choice for 450,000 academics in 100 countries at 6,500 institutions with over 60 million student papers processed!
  • 2. Turnitin is also the number one choice here in the UK where Turnitin UK it is the de facto; 95% of UK Universities (inc. Oxford and Cambridge) and the top five major awarding bodies use this award winning Technology.
  • 3. Turnitin is also number one in effectiveness because of the sheer number, size and breadth of the text databases against which each student paper is compared.
  • 4. Turnitin is number one in trust with customers because of the reliability and speed of paper processing and generation of Originality Reports.
  • 5. Because the originality reports in Turnitin are so easy to understand it can be used formatively as a teaching and learning tool.
  • 6. Although of ten categorized with other more basic search engine based systems as a ‘plagiarism detection system’ it is really a decision support tool - the tutor always makes the decision about plagiarism cases.
  • 7. Turnitin reports are a tangible way for staff and students to discuss the issues surrounding writing and research skills as well as operating as a deterrent.
Turnitin FAQs
What is Turnitin?
Turnitin is the leading originality checking and plagiarism prevention service used by millions of students and faculty, and thousands of institutions worldwide. Turnitin encourages best practices for using and citing other people’s written material. The service offers a complete web-based service to manage the process of submitting and tracking papers electronically, providing better—and faster—feedback to students.
How does Turnitin work?
Institutions license Turnitin on an annual basis. The institutions are encouraged to communicate with students about their use of Turnitin and how their academic integrity policies work. An instructor sets up a class and an assignment in the Turnitin service. Students or instructors then submit papers to Turnitin via file upload or cut and paste. Turnitin’s proprietary software then compares the paper’s text to a vast database of 12+ billion pages of digital content (including archived internet content that is no longer available on the live web) as well as over 110 million papers in the student paper archive, and 80,000+ professional, academic and commercial journals and publications. We’re adding new content through new partnerships all the time. For example, our partner CrossRef boasts 500-plus members that include publishers such as Elsevier and the IEEE, and has already added hundreds of millions of pages of new content to our database. Turnitin offers institutions a wide variety of flexible options for handling students’ submissions including options that let students choose to keep their papers in an institution-only private zone.
What if Turnitin finds text matches in my paper?
Turnitin determines if text in a paper matches text in any of the Turnitin databases. By itself, Turnitin does not detect or determine plagiarism—it just detects matching text to help instructors determine if plagiarism has occurred. Indeed, the text in the student’s paper that is found to match a source may be properly cited and attributed. It is recommended that instructors carefully review the Originality Report and all matches before making any determination of plagiarism. Such determinations of plagiarism require human judgment, and instructors and students alike should understand their institution’s academic integrity policies before turning in written assignments.
Who can see a paper?
Only the course instructor, and possibly a TA (teaching assistant) assigned to the course, can see a student’s paper. If a match is found between the student’s paper and another student’s paper, the instructor can request the matching paper from the other student’s instructor. The instructors decide whether to share the matching paper depending on the circumstances. The only exception to this rule is in the case of peer review assignments. Students using PeerMark will be allowed to view the text of the papers they are assigned to review as part of the peer review assignment, though the instructor can choose to distribute the papers anonymously or not.
Does Turnitin infringe students’ copyrights?
In March 2008, Judge Claude Hilton dismissed a lawsuit that was filed against iParadigms by students. Judge Hilton stated in his summary judgment that Turnitin does not violate the copyrights of students whose papers are stored in the Turnitin database. Judge Hilton upheld a school’s “right to decide how to monitor and address plagiarism in their schools,” and their right to, “employ companies like iParadigms to help do so.” The judge further stated that, “iParadigms’ use protects the creativity and originality of student works by detecting any effort at plagiarism by other students,” and that the service, “provides a substantial public benefit through the network of educational institutions using Turnitin.” The case was appealed and in April of 2009, four judges issued a published opinion reaffirming Judge Hilton’s decision that Turnitin’s use of student papers is a “fair use.” The outcome of this case establishes a clear legal precedent and settles the legal question regarding Turnitin’s “fair use” of student work.

For more details

Contact Us

For comments/queries/suggestion you may contact
Adnan Rashid Focal Person for Anti-Plagiarism at NUML
Email: numl.aps@gmail.com
Blog: numlaps.wordpress.com
Phone: +92 51 9257646 Ext. 214

HEC Plagiarism Policy

In the wake of fundamental improvements being introduced in the system of Higher Education  in  Pakistan,  the  credit,  respect,  recognition  of  research  and  scholarly publications,  career  development  and  financial  gains  are  now  linked  with  such original works accomplished without replicating the efforts of other researchers. It has therefore become necessary that the menace of plagiarism is highlighted and curbed through exemplary punitive actions. On the other hand, we must also guard against bogus  or  false  complaints  in  order  to  prevent  victimization  which  may  make researchers  and  scholars  shy  away  from  research  simply  because  of  the  fear  of prosecution.  A  Plagiarism  Policy  has  therefore  become  necessary  to  create awareness,  define  various  forms  in  which  Plagiarism  exhibits  itself,  present  a methodology of investigation, cater for punitive action proportional to the extent of the offense and even address the issue of false or spurious complaints. more details download HEC Plagiarism Policy.

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